Severity: Warning Alert

Exit/Entry: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of Sept. 4.

Alert Begins 04 Sep 2020 03:30 PM UTC
Alert Expires 11 Sep 2020 11:59 PM UTC

  • Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
  • Location(s): Africa (map)
  • Time Frame: Indefinite
  • Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions

Governments in Africa are maintaining travel and other restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Specific measures vary by country, though as of Sept. 4, significant restrictions include:


  • Angola: The state of health calamity is extended in Luanda and Canzego, Cuanza Norte Province, through at least Sept. 8. Other areas of Angola remain under less restrictive measures. All international and domestic flights remain suspended through at least Sept. 8. Land borders remain closed except for commercial transport.


  • Benin: Limited international air travel has resumed. Domestic restrictions have been eased. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed.


  • Botswana: All land and air borders remain closed, except for cargo, humanitarian, and repatriation flights.


  • Burundi: International passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) are suspended indefinitely. Authorities have also imposed restrictions at land border crossings.


  • Burkina Faso: Domestic flights resumed July 24. International air travel resumed Aug. 1. Land borders remain closed.


  • Cameroon: Limited international air travel for citizens and residents has resumed. An indefinite closure of land and sea borders remains in place.


  • Cape Verde: Domestic sea travel is allowed. Domestic air travel resumed July 15. Essential international flights resumed Aug. 1.


  • Chad: International flights at N'Djamena International Airport (NDJ) resumed Aug. 1. A state of emergency is active until Oct. 17. A nightly 2200-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and in the Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions until Sept. 14. Intercity travel restrictions remain in place.


  • Central African Republic: Limited international flight services have resumed at Bangui M'Poko International Airport (BGF). Persons entering the country are required to self-isolate for 14 days. Land borders remain closed.


  • Comoros: Borders remain closed, including travel between the islands of Grande Comore, Moheli, and Anjouan.


  • Cote d'Ivoire: State of emergency measures remain in place through Aug. 31. Land and sea borders remain closed; however, domestic flights resumed June 26. International flights, with screening measures, were allowed to restart July 1.


  • Djibouti: Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport (JIB) reopened July 17. All passengers entering or transiting Djibouti will be tested upon arrival for COVID-19; those who test positive will enter government isolation centers or be deported.


  • Democratic Republic of Congo: Borders are opening in a phased manner since Aug. 15. Ports and international airports will also reopen for commercial passenger movement. Inter-provincial travel is allowed since Aug. 15. A negative COVID-19 test is required for domestic and international air travel.


  • Equatorial Guinea: International and domestic air travel has resumed. All arriving passengers must produce proof of having tested negative for COVID-19 within 48 hours before travel.


  • Eritrea: An indefinite stay-at-home order remains in place. All international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Other COVID-19 measures are extended indefinitely.


  • eSwatini (Swaziland): The state of emergency remains in place. Most border crossings remain closed. International travel remains suspended.


  • Ethiopia: A five-month state of emergency, enacted April 8, is currently in place. Land borders remain closed.


  • Gabon: State of health emergency measures are extended for 45 days from Aug. 14. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew remains in effect. Nationwide travel by all means of transportation resumed July 1. Limited international flight services have also resumed.


  • Gambia: Land and sea borders are closed until further notice. All passenger flights remain suspended. The state of emergency will be in place through at least Sept. 17. A nighttime 2200-0500 curfew is in place.


  • Ghana: Authorities opened air borders to international commercial traffic Sept. 1. Land and sea borders will remain closed to travelers until further notice. Special dispensation will be given for evacuation and repatriation travel, subject to mandatory quarantine and safety protocols.


  • Guinea: State of health emergency measures are extended through at least Sept. 16. Air borders are gradually reopening since July 17 for international flights. Land and sea borders remain closed until further notice. A 0000-0400 curfew is in place in Greater Conakry (Conakry, Coyah, and Dubreka).


  • Guinea-Bissau: A state of emergency is in place through at least Sept. 8. National borders were reopened May 27. Domestic restrictions remain in place, and only essential services, such as food and medical supply, are operating.


  • Kenya: A nationwide 2100-0400 curfew is in place through late September. Domestic flights resumed July 15; international flights restarted Aug. 1.


  • Lesotho: Restrictions and measures have been partially eased from Aug. 23. Land and air borders will remain closed until further notice.


  • Liberia: National public health measures were introduced July 23. International flights have resumed. The status of the curfew remains unclear.


  • Madagascar: The health state of emergency has been extended through at least Sept. 6. Nighttime curfews remain in place in many areas, including in the capital. Inter-regional commercial transport remains suspended. All land, sea, and air borders remain closed. Inter-regional commercial transport remains suspended.


  • Mali: The status of domestic COVID-19-related health and movement restrictions is uncertain following mid-August political developments. All borders and airports reopened Aug. 21.


  • Malawi: International commercial flights resumed Sept. 2 with the reopening of Kamuzu International Airport (LLW). Land borders are reportedly open.


  • Mauritania: International flights to resume Sept. 11. Domestic restrictions were eased nationwide July 10; intercity travel and domestic flights have resumed. Borders remain closed.


  • Mauritius: All restrictions on economic and social activities were lifted June 15. All borders remain closed.


  • Mayotte: Mayotte Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is open to essential passenger travel for French nationals. Commercial air travel between Mayotte and Reunion has resumed. The state of health emergency is in place until October.


  • Mozambique: The state of emergency remains in place through early September. International passenger flights are suspended. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, and maritime ports of entry. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad.


  • Namibia: International flights resumed to and from Hosea Kutako International Airport (WHD) Sept. 1. Nationwide Stage 3 restrictions will be reinforced until Sept. 12. Land borders remain closed to passenger travel.


  • Niger: International flight air restrictions were lifted Aug. 1. Land border closures with neighboring countries are in place. A state of health emergency is in place through Oct. 12.


  • Nigeria: All land borders remain closed to passenger traffic. All international airports remain closed, except for repatriation flights through Sept. 5. Interstate travel resumed June 1. Domestic flights resumed July 8.


  • Republic of Congo: The state of health emergency has been extended through at least Sept. 8. Air borders reopened Aug. 24; land borders will remain closed. A daily curfew in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire is in place 2000-0500. A curfew for the rest of the country is in place 2200-0500.


  • Reunion: The state of health emergency expired July 10; most business and travel restrictions have been rolled back. Travelers to Reunion are still required to conduct COVID-19 tests 72 hours prior to departure.


  • Rwanda: A nationwide 2100-0500 curfew remains in place. Private and public transportation between provinces has resumed, except movement to and from Rusizi and Rubavu districts. Commercial domestic and international flights have resumed. Land borders remain closed.


  • Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long-term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to a compulsory 14-day quarantine at Bradleys Camp Quarantine Facility.


  • Sao Tome and Principe: State of calamity in place through Sept. 15. International flights have resumed. Travelers must present a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) COVID-19 test result, obtained within 72 hours of arrival.


  • Senegal: International flights have resumed; however, land and sea borders remain closed indefinitely.


  • Seychelles: The phased reopening of borders, which began June 1, is ongoing. As of Aug. 1, commercial tourist activity resumed in the country.


  • Sierra Leone: Inter-district travel can resume, and operations at Lungi International Airport (FNA) were allowed to restart July 22. A nationwide 2300-0500 nightly curfew remains in effect.


  • Somalia: An indefinite 2000-0500 curfew is in place in Mogadishu. International flights resumed Aug. 3. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.


  • South Africa: South Africa moved to Level 2 Aug. 17. The national state of disaster is extended until Sept. 15. A 2200-0400 nightly curfew is in place. Interprovincial travel is permitted. International flights remain largely suspended. Land border crossings remain closed to commercial passenger traffic.


  • South Sudan: All domestic and international commercial flights resumed May 13. A nationwide 2000-0600 curfew is in place. Interstate movement is banned until further notice.


  • Sudan: A nightly 1800-0500 curfew is in place in Khartoum State. Outside Khartoum, a nationwide curfew is in effect 1800-0600. All land and sea borders remain closed. Authorities have reopened Khartoum International Airport (KRT) to international flights with Egypt, Turkey, and the UAE as of July 10. Interstate and intercity travel has been banned.


  • Tanzania: All international commercial flights and cross-border transportation have resumed since May 19. Passengers must provide proof of a negative COVID-19 test performed within 72 hours prior to boarding their flight.


  • Togo: State of emergency has been extended through at least Sept. 15. Authorities reopened international air travel to the country Aug. 1. Arriving passengers must show proof of a negative COVID-19 PRC test taken within five days of boarding. In addition, upon arrival in Lome Airport, another COVID-19 test must be taken at the terminal before exiting.


  • Uganda: A nationwide 2100-0530 curfew is in place. Air, land, and lake ports of entry remain closed.


  • Zambia: Only Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka remains open to international passenger traffic. The border with Tanzania at Nakonde and the DRC crossing at Kasumbalesa have reopened. A mandatory 14-day quarantine is in place at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.


  • Zimbabwe: Air and land borders remain closed. A 2000-0600 nighttime curfew is in place until further notice. Nationwide business hours and movement restrictions are in place indefinitely. Stay-at-home measures and limitations on internal movement are in place.


All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice, and the relaxing of any restrictions is reversible. The movement of cargo across international borders and within impacted countries is continuing largely unhindered.

Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.

Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.

Back to the COVID-19 Risk Intelligence & Resource Center