Severity: Warning Alert
Exit/Entry: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of Sept. 18.
Alert Begins 18 Sep 2020 12:54 PM UTC
Alert Expires 25 Sep 2020 11:59 PM UTC
- Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
- Location(s): Africa (map)
- Time Frame: Indefinite
- Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions
Governments in Africa are maintaining travel and other restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Specific measures vary by country, though as of Sept. 18, significant restrictions include:
- Angola: Land and sea borders remain closed until further notice, except for humanitarian and cargo transport. International air travel is expected to resume Sept. 21.
- Benin: Limited international air travel has resumed. Only essential overland travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed.
- Botswana: All land and international air borders remain closed, except for cargo, humanitarian, and repatriation flights. Domestic flights have resumed as of June 21.
- Burundi: International passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) are suspended indefinitely. Authorities have also imposed restrictions at land border crossings.
- Burkina Faso: International air borders are open to limited flights. Land borders remain closed.
- Cameroon: Limited international air travel for citizens and residents has resumed. An indefinite closure of land and sea borders remains in place.
- Cape Verde: Domestic sea travel is allowed. Domestic air travel resumed July 15. Essential international flights resumed Aug. 1.
- Chad: International flights at N'Djamena International Airport (NDJ) resumed Aug. 1.
- Central African Republic: Limited international flight services have resumed at Bangui M'Poko International Airport (BGF). Land borders remain closed.
- Comoros: Limited international travel to Comoros resumed Sept. 7. Domestic travel has also resumed and ports are open.
- Cote d'Ivoire: Land and sea borders remain closed; however, international flights, with screening measures, were allowed to restart July 1.
- Djibouti: Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport (JIB) reopened July 17. Land and sea borders have also reopened.
- Democratic Republic of Congo: Border openings, including ports and international airports, have been conducted in a phased approach since Aug. 15. A negative COVID-19 test is required for domestic and international air travel.
- Equatorial Guinea: International and domestic air travel has resumed. Land and sea borders remain closed.
- Eritrea: An indefinite stay-at-home order remains in place. All international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Land and sea borders remain closed.
- eSwatini (Swaziland): The State of Emergency remains in place. Border crossings remain closed. International travel remains suspended.
- Ethiopia: Addis Ababa Bole International Airport (ADD) is open but operating at much-reduced levels. Land borders remain closed.
- Gabon: Limited international flight services have resumed. Nationwide travel by all means of transportation resumed July 1. All land and sea borders remain closed.
- Gambia: Land and sea borders are closed until further notice. All passenger flights remain suspended.
- Ghana: Authorities opened air borders to international commercial traffic Sept. 1. Land and sea borders will remain closed to travelers until further notice.
- Guinea: Air borders are gradually reopening since July 17 for international flights. Land and sea borders remain closed until further notice.
- Guinea-Bissau: The state of emergency has been downgraded to a state of calamity through at least Dec. 8. National borders were reopened May 27. Domestic measures remain in place.
- Kenya: Domestic flights resumed July 15; international flights restarted Aug. 1. The Kenya-Uganda, Kenya-Somalia, and Kenya-Tanzania borders reopened Aug. 1. Maritime borders remain closed.
- Lesotho: Restrictions and measures have been partially eased from Aug. 23. Land and air borders will remain closed until further notice.
- Liberia: International flights have resumed. All land borders are closed to travelers. Ports remain open.
- Madagascar: Inter-regional travel is permitted in a phased manner from Sept. 11. All land, sea, and air borders remain closed. International travel could reopen between October-December in certain cities.
- Mali: Borders reopened to commercial travel; however, travel from regional West African states is limited due to international restrictions following Mali's Aug. 18 coup.
- Malawi: International commercial flights resumed Sept. 2 with the reopening of Kamuzu International Airport (LLW). Most land borders are reportedly open.
- Mauritania: International flights resumed Sept. 11. Domestic restrictions were eased nationwide July 10; intercity travel and domestic flights have resumed. Land borders remain closed.
- Mauritius: All restrictions on economic and social activities were lifted June 15. All borders remain closed.
- Mayotte: Mayotte Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is open to essential passenger travel for French nationals. Commercial air travel between Mayotte and Reunion has resumed, with restrictions. Health screening procedures are in place at airports and maritime ports of entry.
- Mozambique: The state of calamity enacted indefinitely from Sept. 7. International borders reopened and international passenger flights resumed Sept. 7. Maritime freight operations are ongoing.
- Namibia: All international travel restrictions were lifted Sept. 18.
- Niger: International flight air restrictions were lifted Aug. 1. Land border closures with neighboring countries are in place. A State of Health Emergency is in place through Oct. 12.
- Nigeria: All land borders remain closed to passenger traffic. Limited international air travel resumed Sept. 5. Interstate travel resumed June 1. Domestic flights resumed July 8.
- Republic of Congo: The State of Health Emergency has been extended through at least Sept. 28. Air borders reopened Aug. 24; land borders will remain closed.
- Reunion: The territory is categorized as an Active Transmission Zone, or "red zone," effective Sept. 6 due to local transmission of the virus; however, most business and travel restrictions have been eased since July. Travelers to Reunion are still required to conduct COVID-19 tests 72 hours prior to departure.
- Rwanda: Commercial domestic and international flights have resumed. Land borders remain closed.
- Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long-term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to a compulsory 14-day quarantine at Bradleys Camp Quarantine Facility.
- Sao Tome and Principe: International flights have resumed. Travelers must present a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) COVID-19 test result obtained within 72 hours of arrival.
- Senegal: International flights have resumed; however, land and sea borders remain closed indefinitely.
- Seychelles: The phased reopening of borders, which began June 1, is ongoing. As of Aug. 1, commercial tourist activity resumed in the country.
- Sierra Leone: Interdistrict travel can resume, and operations at Lungi International Airport (FNA) were allowed to restart July 22. Land borders remain closed.
- Somalia: International flights resumed Aug. 3. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.
- South Africa: South Africa will move to Level 1 of its restriction plan Sept. 21. Limited international air travel will resume Oct. 1. As of Sept. 17, two land border posts with Botswana and Lesotho are open.
- South Sudan: All domestic and international commercial flights resumed May 13. Land borders are open.
- Sudan: All land and sea borders remain closed. Authorities have reopened Khartoum International Airport (KRT) to international flights with Egypt, Turkey, and the UAE. Interstate and intercity travel has been banned.
- Tanzania: All international commercial flights and cross-border transportation have resumed since May 19.
- Togo: Authorities reopened international air travel to the country Aug. 1. Land borders remain closed.
- Uganda: A nationwide 2100-0530 curfew is in place. Air, land, and lake ports of entry remain closed.
- Zambia: Only Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka remains open to international passenger traffic. The border with Tanzania at Nakonde and the DRC crossing at Kasumbalesa have reopened. A mandatory 14-day quarantine is in place at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.
- Zimbabwe: Domestic flights resumed Sept. 10; international flights resumed from Oct. 1. Land borders open for Zimbabwean nationals and permanent residents, and freight.
All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice, and the relaxing of any restrictions is reversible. The movement of cargo across international borders and within impacted countries is continuing largely unhindered.
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.
Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.