Severity: Warning Alert
Exit/Entry: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of July 3.
- Alert Begins: 03 Jul 2020 01:30 PM UTC
- Alert Expires: 10 Jul 2020 11:59 PM UTC
- Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
- Location(s): Africa (map)
- Time Frame: Indefinite
- Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions
Governments in Africa are maintaining travel and other restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Specific measures vary by country, though as of July 3, significant restrictions include:
- Angola: The government downgraded the country's state of emergency to a state of calamity May 26. Land, sea, and air borders are closed. Inter-provincial travel is allowed for commercial reasons, except for Luanda, where all entry and exit is restricted. International air travel is expected to resume in the coming days.
- Benin: Travel restrictions measures have been extended indefinitely; however, domestic restrictions have been eased, and some academic activities resumed May 10. Places of worship, bars, and public transport services also resumed June 2. Other measures are in place indefinitely. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed.
- Botswana: Lockdown measures have been lifted nationwide since May 20. Air Botswana (BP) resumed domestic flights June 12. Precautionary travel measures, such as safe social distancing between passengers, are in place for all flights. International flights remain suspended.
- Burundi: International passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) are suspended indefinitely. Cargo and humanitarian flights will be allowed to continue. Authorities have also imposed restrictions at land border crossings.
- Burkina Faso: Land and air borders are closed; however, authorities have indicated a possible reopening in the coming weeks. A state of emergency remains in place.
- Cameroon: An indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place. Cargo transport will not be affected.
- Cape Verde: Domestic sea travel is ongoing. Air travel restrictions remain in place at least through July 15.
- Chad: State of emergency extended until Oct. 17. N'Djamena International Airport (NDJ) is closed indefinitely to all passenger travel. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and in the Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions. Authorities have also implemented a ban on vehicles leaving or entering N'Djamena and all provincial capitals nationwide until at least July 7. Some businesses, such as market stalls, have been allowed to resume operations.
- Central African Republic: Bangui M'Poko International Airport (BGF) remains closed since April 1. Persons entering the country from locations with local transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 14 days. Border closures with neighboring countries are in place.
- Comoros: All international flights are suspended until further notice. Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.
- Cote d'Ivoire: State of emergency measures remain in place through July 15. Quarantine measures are also in place for the Grand Abidjan region. Travel into and out of the region, excluding freight, has been banned. International flights have been allowed to resume since July 1. Land and maritime borders are closed.
- Djibouti: Travel and business confinement measures have been relaxed since May 17. All land, sea, and air borders remain closed, except for cargo and humanitarian services until Sept. 1.
- Democratic Republic of Congo: Authorities have extended the nationwide state of health emergency through to at least July 4. Restrictions implemented April 6 will remain in place for the duration of the extension, including the closure of borders and international travel suspensions.
- Equatorial Guinea: Confinement measures, including a state of emergency, have been eased from June 15. A comprehensive reopening plan is in place, and authorities are pushing for a return to normalcy in the coming weeks.
- Eritrea: An indefinite stay-at-home order remains in place. All international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Other COVID-19 measures have been extended indefinitely.
- eSwatini (Swaziland): The state of emergency remains in place. Businesses in the manufacturing and production sectors have resumed operations under specific conditions since May 8. Nonessential business operations, such as retail clothing stores, may operate three days a week. Public transportation services are permitted to only transport 70 percent of their passenger capacity.
- Ethiopia: A five-month state of emergency, enacted April 8, is currently in place. All international land borders remain closed, with regional states suspending incoming and outgoing public transportation.
- Gabon: Nationwide travel has been allowed to resume from July 1. Limited international flight services can also resume. Land and sea borders remain closed except for cases of repatriation, the transport of food, oil, gas, and freight. A nationwide 2000-0500 curfew remains in place.
- Gambia: Land, maritime, and air borders remain closed. Schools and places of worship can reopen. The state of emergency remains in place through mid-July.
- Ghana: Restrictions will remain in place at least through early July. Domestic flights have resumed, but land, sea, and air borders will remain closed until further notice. Some educational facilities reopened June 15.
- Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel is in effect. A state of emergency is in place through at least mid-July.
- Guinea-Bissau: A state of emergency is in place through at least July 25. National borders have been reopened May 27, and the nationwide curfew has been lifted. Domestic restrictions remain in place, and only essential services, such as food and medical supply, are operating.
- Kenya: A nationwide nighttime 2100-0500 curfew is in place through early July. A lockdown in the Greater Nairobi Metropolitan region and Mombasa and Mandera counties remain in place. All international flights are suspended until further notice, though some repatriation flights are ongoing.
- Lesotho: Borders remain closed, and movement in and out of the country remains prohibited. Authorities have allowed all businesses, public services, and state companies to resume daily business operations. Schools and universities are also included in this directive. Public transport is only permitted to operate 0600-1900.
- Liberia: The state of emergency has been reinstated and extended through at least mid-July following the continued spread of the disease. A 1800-0600 curfew remains in place. International flights have resumed. The movement of essential staff and products is permitted.
- Madagascar: The state of health emergency has been extended for a further 15 days, June 27. This is the sixth time the country has extended its state of health emergency; however, restrictions in some areas will be eased including in Toamasina, Moramanga, and Fenerive-Est. Residents here will be permitted to work until 1700, with transportation services operating until 1900. Students in these areas have been permitted to return to school and university from July 2.
- Mali: Commercial international flights remain banned. Land borders are closed to passenger travel, except for returning nationals.
- Malawi: All international flights have been suspended. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers.
- Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew is enforced 2300-0600. Inter-district travel remains restricted.
- Mauritius: All restrictions on economic and social activities are lifted as of June 15. All borders remain closed.
- Mayotte: Mayotte Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is open to essential passenger travel. Travel certificates are to be completed before entry to French Overseas Territories, including Mayotte.
- Mozambique: A state of emergency is in place until July 30. The measure limits the movement of persons and goods. International passenger flights are suspended. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, or maritime ports of entry, with certain exceptions, including freight transport. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad. Visa issuance has been suspended.
- Namibia: The easing of travel and movement restrictions, which began May 5, is ongoing. Stage 4 restrictions are in place until Sept. 17, except for parts of the Erongo Region which are under Stage 3 until July 6.
- Niger: The long-running curfew in the capital, Niamey, has been lifted. Academic activities, including the reopening of all schools, began June 1. Travel in and out of Niamey is permitted. Places of worship are also allowed to reopen nationwide.
- Nigeria: All land borders remain closed to passenger traffic. All international airports remain closed, except for repatriation flights. Interstate travel resumed June 1. Domestic flights are expected to resume July 8.
- Republic of Congo: The state of health emergency has been extended through at least July 11. Restrictions established March 21 will remain in place for the duration of the extension; however, movement between Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire and the rest of the country is permitted as of June 23.
- Reunion: The relaxing of restrictions began May 11. Phase 3 of the reopening plan is scheduled to last until July 10. Travelers to Reunion are required to conduct COVID-19 tests 72 hours prior to departure. Arriving passengers testing positive for COVID-19 will undergo health treatment at their own expense.
- Rwanda: A nationwide curfew 2100-0500 remains in place. Private and public transportation between provinces has resumed, except movement to and from Rusizi and Rubavu districts. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) are indefinitely suspended.
- Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long-term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to a compulsory 14-day quarantine.
- Sao Tome and Principe: The country's state of emergency has been downgraded to a state of calamity until July 31. The further easing of restrictive measures will be implemented in three stages until July 31.
- Seychelles: The phased reopening of Seychelles' borders is ongoing after authorities declared the country free of COVID-19. Private and chartered flights are permitted; however, visitors arriving in Seychelles will have to undergo a COVID-19 test 48 hours prior to arrival at Pointe la Rue International Airport (SEZ). International passenger flights are prohibited.
- Sierra Leone: Restrictive measures, including a nationwide 2300-0600 nightly curfew, remain in effect following the expiration of a state of emergency. Inter-district travel can resume.
- Somalia: An indefinite 2000-0500 curfew is in place in Mogadishu. Domestic flights resumed from June 8. International flights are canceled in Mogadishu until further notice. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.
- South Africa: Level 3 restrictions are in place through at least mid-July. The National State of Disaster is extended until July 15. Nonessential movement restrictions are in place. Domestic business travel is permitted. Regional and international flights remain largely suspended; repatriation flights are ongoing. Land border crossings remain closed to commercial passenger traffic.
- South Sudan: All domestic and international commercial flights have resumed as of May 13. A nationwide 2000-0600 curfew is in place. Interstate movement is banned until further notice.
- Sudan: Lockdown measures in Khartoum State have been extended through June 29. The government has also enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A nationwide curfew is in effect from 1800-0600. Interstate and intercity travel has been banned.
- Tanzania: All international commercial flights and cross-border transportation have resumed since May 19. Under the new measures, all travelers arriving at all airports will be required to undergo enhanced screening for COVID-19 upon arrival.
- Togo: The state of emergency has expired. Measures, such as a nightly curfew and lockdown restrictions, have also been eased. Authorities are debating reopening Togo's borders.
- Uganda: Restrictive measures are in place nationwide and indefinitely. A nationwide 1900-0630 curfew is in place. Shops, hotels, and restaurants have reopened. Residents are also now allowed to use their personal vehicles without special permits. Air, land, and maritime ports of entry remain closed.
- Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open, while Simon Mwansa Kapwepwe International Airport (NLA), Harry Mwanga Nkumbula International Airport (LVA), and Mfuwe Airport (MFU) are closed to international passenger traffic. The border with Tanzania at Nakonde and the DRC crossing at Kasumbalesa have been reopened. A mandatory 14-day quarantine is in place at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.
- Zimbabwe: Nationwide movement restrictions are in place indefinitely. Stay-at-home measures, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures are in place. Formal sector employees can work 0800-1500. Air and land borders remain closed.
All restrictions are subject to amend at short notice, and the relaxing of any restrictions is reversible. The movement of cargo across international borders and within impacted countries is continuing largely unhindered.
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.
Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.