Severity: Warning Alert

Entry/Exit: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of April 23.

The locations affected by this alert are:

  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Cape Verde
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Congo
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Djibouti
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Comoros
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Reunion
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome And Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Sudan
  • Eswatini (Swaziland)
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Seychelles
  • Victoria
  • Djibouti
  • St. Helena
  • South Sudan

This alert began 23 Apr 2020 13:13 GMT and is scheduled to expire 30 Apr 2020 23:59 GMT.

  • Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
  • Location(s): Africa (map)
  • Time Frame: Indefinite
  • Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions

Summary
African governments are maintaining travel restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The majority of countries have implemented heightened screening measures at border points and port of entries and/or closed ports of entry. The transport of essential cargo and personnel remains largely unhindered. Repatriation flights for foreign nationals are also underway in numerous areas as of April 23. Domestic movement restrictions, including bans on gatherings and stay-at-home orders, have also been enforced. As of April 23, the following high-level restrictions are in place.

Angola: The government has extended the state of emergency through 2359 April 25. The country's land, sea, and air borders are closed. Interprovincial travel is banned.

Benin: Authorities have implemented movement restrictions and social distancing measures. The measures include quarantine and movement restrictions in the municipalities of Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Abomey-Calavi, Allada, Ouidah, Seme Podji, Akpro Missere, Atchoukpa, and Adjara. Travel in major cities is allowed only for essential purposes and with a waiver. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed. Mandatory quarantine is in place for travelers arriving at Cotonou Cadjehoun International Airport (COO).

Botswana: Legislators endorsed a motion April 9 to extend the state of public emergency by six months. A nationwide stay-at-home order is in effect through April 30; flights have been suspended and borders are closed.

Burundi: Flights at Melchior Ndadaye International Airport (BJM) in Bujumbura have been suspended since April 19. Authorities are imposing restrictions at land borders.

Burkina Faso: Authorities have introduced quarantine measures in major cities. Land and air borders are closed at least through April. Officials have also implemented a state of health emergency and a nationwide nightly curfew from 2100-0400. Domestic flights are still operating.

Cape Verde: The government has declared a state of emergency nationwide through at least April 26; this will almost certainly be extended. Movement will be highly restricted. All nonessential services and businesses will remain closed for this period; the island of Boa Vista remains under quarantine.

Cameroon: An indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place at least through April. Cargo transport will not be affected. Internal travel has also been restricted. All individuals are required to wear face masks in public spaces.

Chad: N'Djamena International Airport (NJD) is closed to all passenger travel through at least April 25. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and for the provinces of Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-kebbi Ouest, and Mayo-kebbi Est.

Central African Republic: Bangui-M'Poko International Airport (BGF) has been closed since April 1. Persons entering CAR from locations with local-transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 21 days.

Comoros: All international flights have been suspended until further notice (since March 23). Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.

Cote d'Ivoire: The government has implemented a state of emergency. Measures include a nightly 2100-0500 curfew. Authorities have banned all travel to and from Abidjan March 29 through at least April 24, which includes the District of Abidjan, Dabou, Azaguie, Bingerville, Grand-Bassam, Bonoua, Assinie, and up to PK30 on the Abidjan-Yamoussoukro motorway. Land and air borders are closed.

Djibouti: Authorities have extended general confinement at home through at least April 28. Stores are ordered to close, except those with essential services. Authorities have banned international travel since March 18.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Land borders, airports, and maritime ports of entry have been closed since early April. Indefinite movement restrictions are in effect in parts of the capital, Kinshasa, in parts of North Kivu, including Goma, Beni, and Butembo, and in South Kivu, including in Bukavu. Night time 2200-0500 curfew in Lualaba province.

Equatorial Guinea: Land, sea, and air border closures are in place. Restriction of movement within the country is in effect, except for essential purposes. Travel restrictions are implemented throughout the mainland, which has been extended to April 30. Authorities are requiring residents to wear protective masks when in public.

Eritrea: Authorities have indefinitely extended a stay-at-home order, and all international commercial passenger flights remain suspended as of April 23. Other COVID-19 measures have been extended indefinitely.

eSwatini (Swaziland): Authorities enacted nationwide movement restrictions March 27-May 6. Only citizens and residents will be allowed to enter the country's land borders and will then be subject to a 14-day quarantine. Commercial passenger flights have also been suspended. A stay-at-home order is in place.

Ethiopia: Authorities declared a five-month state of emergency April 8. Measures included in this declaration include a ban on public gatherings and the closure of schools. All international land borders have been closed since March 2 with regional states suspending incoming and outgoing public transportation. Authorities have also imposed movement restrictions on private vehicles with permitted driving days determined by the vehicle's registration.

Gabon: Significant movement restrictions are in effect in Greater Libreville from 2359 April 12-27. All land, air, and sea borders have been closed until further notice. Authorities have also imposed a nationwide nightly 1930-0600 curfew. The mandatory wearing of facemasks in public was implemented April 15.

Gambia: Authorities have suspended land and air borders. Schools, universities, public gatherings, and open markets are closed.

Ghana: Authorities have closed borders at least through April. All international flights in and out of the country have been suspended. Movement restrictions have also been relaxed for the Accra and Kumasi regions.

Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel is in effect through mid-May.

Guinea-Bissau: Land, sea, and air borders are closed since March 17.

Kenya: Kenyan authorities have placed movement restrictions on Nairobi from April 6 and on Mombasa, Kilifi, and Kwale counties from April 8. All international flights are suspended until at least May 6, although some repatriation flights are ongoing. Authorities are prohibiting travelers arriving from any country with reported cases of COVID-19 from entering Kenya. An indefinite nationwide 1900-0500 curfew is in place. Mandera County announced movement restrictions until May 8.

Lesotho: Authorities in Lesotho have extended their lockdown to May 5. The measures include a stay-at-home order, the banning of an international flight, and the closure of nonessential businesses. Land borders are closed through May 5.

Liberia: Authorities in Liberia declared a renewable three-week state of emergency from April 10. Citizens are permitted to leave their houses for one hour to obtain essential services. Land borders remain closed. All commercial flights have been suspended.

Madagascar: Malagasy authorities announced the easing of restrictive measures in Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, and Toamasina, including in the Analamanga and Matsiatra Ambony regions, and in the city of Toamasinain, from April 20. Movement restrictions will be lifted 0600-1300 daily in these areas. Markets, bars, and restaurants will be allowed to operate, and limited government and official services will resume. Public transport will resume in Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, and Toamasina during this time. A curfew between 2100-0400 will be implemented indefinitely. Some schools have been reopened as of April 22. Other travel restrictions remain in place.

Mali: Authorities have implemented a nightly 2100-0500 curfew and banned commercial international flights. Land borders have been closed to passenger travel.

Malawi: Authorities have declared nationwide movement restrictions April 18-May 9. All nonessential businesses and services will cease. All international flights have been suspended. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures.

Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew is enforced from 1800-0600. Movement restrictions are in effect through at least May 4.

Mauritius: A nationwide shutdown and 2000-0800 curfew remain in effect until at least May 5. The shutdown includes the suspension of nonessential businesses and services, internal travel, cruise ships from disembarking, and all international commercial inbound and outbound flights until April 30.

Mayotte: Officials have imposed a 2000-0500 curfew. Mayotte-Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is closed to commercial air traffic. Travel certificates are to be completed before entry to French Overseas Territories, including Mayotte; this document is available on the French Ministry of Interior webpage.

Mozambique: The government declared a state of emergency effective April 1. The measure limits the movement of persons and goods. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, or maritime ports of entry, with certain exceptions, including freight transport. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad. Visa issuance has been suspended. Ethiopian Airlines is the only commercial airline continuing to offer flights departing Mozambique.

Namibia: A state of emergency was declared March 17. Travel and movement restrictions, previously enforced in Khomas and Erongo regions, has been extended nationwide until May 5. Airports and land border crossings are closed.

Niger: Authorities issued a state of health emergency nationwide, and a 1900-0600 curfew is in place in the capital, Niamey. Other measures include air and land border closures, except cargo, aid, and military essentials. Travel to and from Niamey is currently restricted.

Nigeria: The Nigerian government closed all land borders to passenger traffic effective March 23. All international airports remain closed except for repatriation flights. Authorities have also announced travel and movement restrictions for Lagos, Abuja, and Ogun State March 30-May 1. State governors have taken similar restrictions.

Republic of Congo: Congolese authorities declared a public health state of emergency effective March 31, imposing severe containment restrictions. An indefinite 2000-0500 nightly curfew is in place.

Reunion: Nonessential regional and international travel is banned from March 20. Travelers from France and Mayotte must undergo a 14-day mandatory self-quarantine. Regional flights remain suspended.

Rwanda: Authorities in Rwanda have implemented nationwide travel and movement restrictions until at least April 30. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) are indefinitely suspended. Citizens and legal residents returning to Rwanda will be subjected to isolation and quarantine measures.

Sao Tome and Principe: Officials have prohibited all foreign travelers from entering the country through at least May 1. Charter flights and cruise ships are also prohibited.

Senegal: Authorities have suspended international and regional flights from March 20. Cruise ships will not be allowed to enter Senegalese waters. Travel and movement restrictions, including a curfew from 2000-0600, are also in place.

Seychelles: Authorities have implemented a nationwide restriction period at least through April 29. All international flights have stopped until the end of April. A nightly curfew will be enforced between 1900-0600 at least through April. Additional health and travel security measures may be implemented with little notice.

Sierra Leone: The government has suspended all flights to and from Freetown International Airport (FNA) until further notice from March 21. Land borders remain shut. A nationwide 2100-0600 curfew is in place and nonessential interdistrict travel has been prohibited.

Somalia: Authorities in Somalia introduced an indefinite 2000-0500 curfew in Mogadishu April 15. International flights are canceled in Mogadishu through early May. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.

South Africa: Authorities have imposed nationwide restrictions through at least April 30. A stay-at-home order is in place. Regional and international flights remain suspended until April 30. Land border crossings are closed.

Sudan: Authorities announced a 21-day lockdown of Khartoum from April 18. The government enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A nationwide curfew is in effect from 1800-0600. Intercity travel is banned effective from April 12.

South Sudan: All domestic and international commercial flights remain suspended indefinitely. Authorities have issued a nationwide 2000-0600 curfew and suspended inter-state movement.

Tanzania: All international flights have been canceled since April 11. Mandatory quarantine for travelers arriving from high-risk countries is in effect.

Togo: Officials have declared a three-month state of emergency. Measures include travel restrictions across Togo, a curfew from 2000-0600, the closure of all land borders, and movement restriction orders in place in large cities.

Uganda: Nationwide movement restrictions extended through May 5. All movement of personal vehicles has been suspended since March 31. All malls, arcades, and non-food shops are subject to closures and restrictions. Air, land, and maritime ports of entry are closed.

Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open while Ndola (NLA), Livingstone (LVA), and Mfuwe (MFU) airports are closed. Zambian borders remain open but under tight screening procedures. Mandatory 14-day quarantine at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.

Zimbabwe: Authorities have imposed nationwide movement restrictions until at least May 3 imposing stay-at-home measure, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures. Air and land borders remain closed.

All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks.

Advice
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.

Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.

Resources
World Health Organisation (WHO): www.who.int