Severity: Warning Alert
Entry/Exit: Travel, business restrictions of varying degrees likely in Central America and Caribbean through mid-June due to COVID-19.
The locations affected by this alert are:
- Antigua and Barbuda
- British Virgin Islands
- Cayman Islands
- Dominican Republic
- Sint Maarten
- Puerto Rico
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Turks and Caicos Islands
- Costa Rica
- El Salvador
- Saint Martin
- Saint Barthelemy
- Caribbean Netherlands
This alert began 01 Jun 2020 12:15 GMT and is scheduled to expire 12 Jun 2020 23:59 GMT.
- Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
- Location(s): Regional (map)
- Time Frame: Through at least mid-June
- Impact: Severe transport, travel, and business disruptions
Authorities in the Caribbean and Central America will maintain travel, business, and movement restrictions of varying degrees through at least mid-June as part of their efforts to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The exact duration of the measures will almost certainly depend on disease activity and local authorities' preparedness to respond to the disease. The following measures are in place as of June 1:
- Anguilla: All air and seaports are closed to passenger traffic until further notice.
- Antigua and Barbuda: VC Bird International Airport (ANU) will reopen to commercial passenger flights June 1, though flights remain limited. Arriving passengers will be subject to a mandatory 14-day quarantine. A 2100-0500 curfew is in effect through June 12; however, business restrictions have been gradually eased since mid-May
- Aruba: Borders are tentatively set to reopen between June 15-July 1. Restrictions on nonessential businesses continue to be gradually relaxed since May 4.
- Bahamas: All air and seaports are closed to passenger traffic until further notice. A 2100-0500 weekday curfew will be imposed, with an accompanying weekend lockdown. Varied business restrictions are in place across the islands as of June 1.
- Barbados: Commercial international passenger flights are suspended, with some airlines negotiating to provide limited services. All persons arriving on the island will be subject to a 14-day quarantine. A curfew will be enforced 2200-0500 Mondays to Thursday, and 2000-0500 Fridays to Sundays, through June 14.
- Belize: Borders remain closed to all foreign nationals. A 2000-0459 curfew is in effect Sundays-Thursdays and 2100-0459 Fridays-Saturdays from June 1. Some movement and business restrictions have been relaxed since early May.
- Bermuda: LF Wade International Airport (BDA) is closed to all international passenger flights. A 2200-0600 curfew remains in force until further notice. Some restrictions have been gradually relaxed since early May. Internal movement restrictions are also in force.
- British Virgin Islands: All air and seaports are closed to all inbound passengers until further notice. A daily 1900-0600 curfew is in effect through June 7. A gradual easing of business restrictions began April 27.
- Caribbean Netherlands: Nonresidents are temporarily banned from traveling to Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius; passenger flights are suspended. A gradual easing of business and movement restrictions began May 11.
- Cayman Islands: All international passenger flights are suspended until at least the end of August. Cruise ships and private vessels have also been banned from docking. Various movement restrictions are in place on Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman, with the tightest measures in place in Grand Cayman. A gradual easing of business and movement restrictions began May 4.
- Costa Rica: All ground, air, and maritime borders have been closed to nonresident foreign nationals through June 30. Only Costa Rican citizens and residents are allowed to enter the country, followed by a 14-day quarantine. Various vehicular transit bans are in place. Phase 3 of the country's COVID-19 recovery plan is slated to remain June 1-19.
- Cuba: All commercial and charter international passenger flights are suspended and foreign maritime vessels have been asked to depart. No nonresident foreigners are allowed to enter Cuba. All tourists in the country must remain quarantined until their departure. All interprovincial transport is suspended. Restrictions have been imposed on nonessential commercial activities, public transport, and schools. Localized quarantines and curfews have been imposed.
- Curacao: Officials canceled most passenger flights and suspended most maritime passenger traffic until further notice. Arriving residents must self-quarantine for 14 days. A 0000-0600 curfew is in effect as of May 22 until further notice; however, some movement and business restrictions were relaxed starting May 8.
- Dominica: All passenger flights are suspended. Most nonessential commercial activities have been suspended. An ongoing 2000-0500 curfew is in effect Mondays to Fridays, and 1800-0500 on Saturdays and Sundays, as of May 25.
- Dominican Republic: Land, sea, and air borders are closed to passenger traffic until further notice. A curfew is in effect 1900-0500 Monday to Saturday and 1700-0500 on Sundays. Most nonessential businesses remain closed, despite some restrictions being relaxed.
- El Salvador: All international passenger flights and operations at El Salvador International Airport (SAL) remain suspended. An entry ban for all nonresident foreign nationals is in effect until further notice. Mandatory quarantine is in place, as well as the nationwide closure of nonessential business through at least June 6. Internal movement restrictions have been imposed.
- Grenada: All airports are closed to commercial passenger traffic until further notice. Ports are closed to all cruise ships and pleasure craft. A 1900-0500 curfew has been extended through June 3. A gradual easing of business and movement restrictions began May 11.
- Guadeloupe: A temporary entry ban for nonresident foreign nationals is in place. Limited flights are available between Guadeloupe and metropolitan France. All persons arriving at the Guadeloupe islands will be subject to strict confinement measures. Businesses continue to be gradually reopened.
- Guatemala: Officials have canceled all passenger flights in and out of the country and banned the entry of all nonresident foreign nationals. A 1800-0500 curfew is in effect June 1-7. All interdepartmental travel is prohibited.
- Haiti: Emergency measures have been extended through July 19. All land, air, and seaports are closed to passenger traffic; all commercial flights remain suspended. A 2000-0500 curfew is in effect until further notice.
- Honduras: Land, sea, and air borders are closed to passenger traffic until further notice; all international flights are suspended. Internal movement is restricted to purchasing food or medications, or for banking purposes, until June 7.
- Jamaica: Air and seaports will gradually begin reopening to all citizens and legal residents from June 1 and nonresidents from June 15. Curfew measures remain in place through June 30.
- Martinique: A temporary entry ban for nonresident foreign nationals is in place. Limited flights between Martinique and metropolitan France are available. All persons arriving in Martinique are subject to strict confinement measures. Businesses continue to be gradually reopened.
- Montserrat: Most nonresidents are banned from entry. A mandatory 14-day quarantine period is in place for all persons arriving in Montserrat. A 2000-0500 curfew is in effect as of May 22 until further notice. A gradual easing of business and movement restrictions began May 7.
- Nicaragua: All international commercial passenger flights have been suspended through at least early June.
- Panama: All commercial international passenger flights are suspended. A 1900-0500 curfew has been imposed as of June 1, while the gradual reopening of businesses continues.
- Puerto Rico: A 1900-0500 curfew is in effect through June 15. Some movement and business restrictions have been gradually relaxed since May 4, though most nonessential commercial activity remains suspended.
- Saint Barthelemy: A temporary entry ban is in place for nonresident foreign nationals. Limited flights between Saint Barthelemy and metropolitan France are available. All persons arriving in Saint Barthelemy are subject to strict confinement measures. Businesses continue to be gradually reopened.
- Saint Kitts and Nevis: All air and seaports are closed to passenger traffic until further notice. A curfew is in effect 2000-0500 Monday-Friday and 1900-0500 on Saturdays and Sundays until June 13. Some restrictions are gradually being eased.
- Saint Lucia: All air and seaports are closed to incoming passenger travel. Full business operations resumed May 20, but a 2100-0500 curfew is still in place.
- Saint Martin: A temporary entry ban for nonresident foreign nationals is in effect. Limited flights are available between Saint Martin and metropolitan France. Ground travel between Saint Martin and Sint Maarten is restricted. Businesses continue to be gradually reopened.
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: All international passenger flights at Argyle International Airport (AIA) remain suspended until further notice. Bequia, Canouan, and Union Island ports of entry are closed to yachts and pleasure craft. Most persons arriving are subject to a mandatory quarantine. Restrictions on certain businesses are in place.
- Sint Maarten: All inbound commercial passenger flights are suspended. A phased economic recovery plan will continue through mid-June, with a 2000-0500 nightly curfew.
- Trinidad and Tobago: All airports and seaports are closed to passenger aircraft and vessels. A stay-at-home order is in effect until further notice. A phased reopening of the economy began May 11, though most nonessential businesses and facilities remain closed.
- Turks and Caicos: All air and seaports remain closed to passenger traffic until further notice. Returning citizens and legal residents are subject to quarantine protocols. A 2200-0500 curfew is in place until at least June 22. Restrictions on public gatherings and nonessential commercial activity are in effect, though some business restrictions were relaxed May 4.
- US Virgin Islands: All arriving international travelers are subject to health screenings and a 14-day quarantine. A safer-at-home order is in effect until further notice. A gradual easing of business and movement restrictions began May 4, though most nonessential businesses and facilities remain closed.
Most ports of entry are still closed across the region, and repatriation options are limited. Most flight bans, where they are in effect, do not apply to cargo, humanitarian, or medical flights. Restrictions may be relaxed, reimposed, or otherwise amended based on disease activity.
Background and Analysis
The measures taken by these governments are similar to those taken by other governments globally in response to the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a viral respiratory disease caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus (previously known as 2019-nCoV). On March 11, the WHO declared the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Some governments around the world have gradually started relaxing some internal measures to allow economic recovery. However, should the number of COVID-19 cases significantly increase, the relaxed restrictions may be reapplied. Likewise, a continued low number of cases may result in a further relaxation of restrictions.
Confirm all travel arrangements and entry requirements before departing. Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Allow additional time for immigration and health screenings. Consider delaying travel if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny, delays, and potential quarantine.
Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.