Severity: Warning Alert

Entry/Exit: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of May 8.

The locations affected by this alert are:

  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Cape Verde
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Congo
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Djibouti
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Comoros
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Reunion
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome And Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Sudan
  • Eswatini (Swaziland)
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Seychelles
  • St. Helena
  • South Sudan

This alert began 08 May 2020 10:27 GMT and is scheduled to expire 15 May 2020 23:59 GMT.

  • Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
  • Location(s): Africa (map)
  • Time Frame: Indefinite
  • Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions

Summary
Governments in Africa are maintaining travel and other restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Specific measures vary by country, though as of May 8 major restrictions include:

  • Angola: State of emergency in place through 2359 May 10. Land, sea, and air borders are closed. Interprovincial travel is allowed for commercial reasons, except for Luanda, where all entry and exit into the capital is restricted.
  • Benin: Authorities have extended travel restrictions and social distancing measures indefinitely. Domestic restrictions have also been eased and schools will resume academic activities from May 10. Quarantine restrictions have been eased in the municipalities of Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Abomey-Calavi, Allada, Ouidah, Seme Podji, Akpro Missere, Atchoukpa, and Adjara. Inter-regional travel in major cities is allowed only for essential purposes and with a waiver. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed. Residents must wear protective facemasks.
  • Botswana: Restrictions put in place through at least May 20. A phased easing of some measures has begun May 8; businesses and schools will be permitted to operate so long as they have satisfied policies put in place by the Director of Health Services. Individuals will also be permitted to travel under certain circumstances. Additional restrictions include the demarcation of Botswana into nine zones. Nonessential travel is not permitted across these zones for the duration of general restrictions.
  • Burundi: International passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) suspended indefinitely. Cargo and humanitarian flights will be allowed to continue. Authorities are imposing restrictions at land borders.
  • Burkina Faso: Authorities have introduced quarantine measures in major cities. Land and air borders are closed. Officials have also implemented a state of health emergency and a nationwide nightly curfew from 2100-0400. The use of facemasks is obligatory.
  • Cape Verde: The government has declared a state of emergency with quarantine measures in place on Boa Vista and Santiago through at least May 14; similar measures have been eased on other islands. Movement will be highly restricted in affected areas. All nonessential services and businesses will remain closed for this period.
  • Cameroon: An indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place at least through early May. Cargo transport will not be affected. Internal travel has also been restricted. All individuals are required to wear face masks in public spaces.
  • Chad: N'Djamena International Airport (NJD) is closed to all passenger travel through at least May 15. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and in all provincial capitals nationwide starting May 8. Authorities have also implemented a 14-day ban on vehicles leaving or entering the capital, N'Djamena, and all provincial capitals nationwide starting May 8.
  • Central African Republic: Bangui-M'Poko International Airport (BGF) closed since April 1. Persons entering CAR from locations with local-transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 14 days. Stay-at-home measures are being enforced.
  • Comoros: All international flights suspended until further notice (since March 23). Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.
  • Cote d'Ivoire: State of emergency in place. Measures include a nightly 2100-0500 curfew. Authorities have banned all travel to and from Abidjan through at least May 15. Affected areas include the District of Abidjan, Dabou, Azaguie, Bingerville, Grand-Bassam, Bonoua, Assinie, and up to PK30 on the Abidjan-Yamoussoukro motorway. Land and air borders are closed.
  • Djibouti: Restrictive measures currently in place will end May 8. Further directives will be issued May 10.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo: State of health emergency extended until at least May 22. Land borders, airports, and maritime ports of entry have been closed since early April. Indefinite movement restrictions are in effect in parts of Kinshasa, in parts of North Kivu, including Goma, Beni, and Butembo, and in South Kivu, including in Bukavu. Night-time 2200-0500 curfew in Lualaba province.
  • Equatorial Guinea: Land, sea, and air border closures are in place. Restriction of movement within the country is in effect, except for essential purposes. Travel restrictions through May 15 have been implemented throughout the mainland. Authorities are requiring residents to wear protective masks when in public.
  • Eritrea: Authorities have indefinitely extended a stay-at-home order, and all international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Other COVID-19 measures have been extended indefinitely.
  • eSwatini (Swaziland): Authorities have begun a phased lifting of restrictive measures May 8. Nationwide movement restrictions remain in effect. Commercial passenger flights have also been suspended. Only citizens and residents will be allowed to enter the country's land borders and will then be subject to a 14-day quarantine.
  • Ethiopia: Authorities declared a five-month state of emergency April 8. Measures included in this declaration include a ban on public gatherings and the closure of schools. All international land borders have been closed since March 2 with regional states suspending incoming and outgoing public transportation. Authorities have also imposed movement restrictions on private vehicles with permitted driving days determined by the vehicle's registration.
  • Gabon: Significant movement restrictions are in effect in Greater Libreville through May 11. All land, air, and sea borders have been closed until further notice. Authorities have also imposed a nationwide nightly 1800-0600 curfew. Wearing of facemasks in public is mandatory.
  • Gambia: Authorities have suspended land and air borders. Schools, universities, public gatherings, and open markets are closed.
  • Ghana: Authorities resumed domestic flights May 1. International flights will remain suspended. Precautionary travel measures, such as health screenings before boarding flights, and safe social distancing between passengers, will be in place.
  • Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel is in effect through mid-May.
  • Guinea-Bissau: A state of emergency is in place at least through May 11. Land, sea, and air borders have been closed since March 17. Only essential services, such as food and medical supply, are operating.
  • Kenya: Authorities extended a 21-day extension of curfew in Nairobi, Kilifi, Kwale, and Mombasa from April 27. All international flights are suspended until further notice, although some repatriation flights are ongoing. Authorities are prohibiting travelers arriving from any country with reported cases of COVID-19 from entering Kenya. An indefinite nationwide 1900-0500 curfew is in place. Mandera County announced movement restrictions through early May.
  • Lesotho: Restrictive measures eased as of May 5; all businesses, public services, and state companies can resume daily business operations. Schools and universities will also be open from that date. Restrictions on gatherings of more than 50 people remain in place.
  • Liberia: Nationwide restrictions expanded and extended through at least mid-May. All counties will be quarantined with citizens permitted to leave their houses to obtain essential services. Land borders remain closed. All commercial flights have been suspended.
  • Madagascar: State of sanitary emergency to extend through at least May 17. Restrictions include the suspension of air traffic until further notice and the mandatory wearing of facemasks in public. Movement restrictions are lifted 0600-1300 daily until further notice.
  • Mali: Nightly 2100-0500 curfew in place and commercial international flights banned. Land borders closed to passenger travel.
  • Malawi: All international flights have been suspended. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures.
  • Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew is enforced from 2300-0600. Movement restrictions are in effect through at least May 23.
  • Mauritius: Nationwide 2000-0800 nightly curfew extended through June 1. Authorities have also announced that they will gradually begin easing restrictions on commercial operations from May 15. The restrictions put in place have suspended activities of nonessential businesses and services, internal travel, cruise ships from disembarking, and all international commercial inbound and outbound flights indefinitely.
  • Mayotte: Nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place. Mayotte-Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is closed to commercial air traffic. Travel certificates are to be completed before entry to French Overseas Territories, including Mayotte; this document is available on the French Ministry of Interior webpage.
  • Mozambique: State of emergency in place until May 30. The measure limits the movement of persons and goods. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, or maritime ports of entry, with certain exceptions, including freight transport. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad. Visa issuance has been suspended. Ethiopian Airlines is the only commercial airline continuing to offer flights departing Mozambique.
  • Namibia: Authorities began easing travel and movement restrictions May 5. Domestic air travel and intercity travel is allowed without restriction but in adherence to social distancing protocols. International commercial flights are suspended. Land border crossings are closed.
  • Niger: Authorities issued a state of health emergency nationwide, and a 1900-0600 curfew is in place in the capital, Niamey. Other measures include air and land border closures, except cargo, aid, and military essentials. Travel to and from Niamey is currently restricted. All international passenger flights are suspended through May 23.
  • Nigeria: All land borders remain closed to passenger traffic. All international airports remain closed except for repatriation flights. Authorities have also relaxed travel and movement restrictions for Lagos, Abuja, and Ogun State since May 4. A nationwide lockdown came into effect May 4. State governors have taken similar restrictions.
  • Republic of Congo: State of emergency extended through May 11 to curb the spread of COVID-19. An indefinite 2000-0500 nightly curfew is in place.
  • Reunion: Nonessential regional and international travel has been banned since March 20. Travelers from France and Mayotte must undergo a 14-day mandatory self-quarantine. Regional flights remain suspended.
  • Rwanda: Authorities have lifted some restrictions from May 4. Some of the easing measures include movement of people within their local provinces, reopening of hotels and restaurants, allowing public and private modes of transportation. All residents are required to wear a face mask in a public place. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) are indefinitely suspended.
  • Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to a compulsory 14-day quarantine.
  • Sao Tome and Principe: Sao Tomean authorities have extended an ongoing state of emergency, as part of efforts to stem the spread of COVID-19, from May 6 to at least May 17.
  • Senegal: Authorities have suspended international and regional flights from March 20. Cruise ships will not be allowed to enter Senegalese waters. Travel and movement restrictions, including a curfew from 2000-0600, are also in place.
  • Seychelles: Phased relaxation of restrictions from May 4. Much of the business and retail sector, the postal service, tourism, schools, and indoor religious services will begin to reopen. Shops, retail, and wholesale outlets will be required to close 2000-0600. Domestic land, sea, and air transport will also resume. Additional relaxation in restrictions is scheduled from June 1.
  • Sierra Leone: Nationwide 2100-0600 nightly curfew in effect.
  • Somalia: Indefinite 2000-0500 curfew in place in Mogadishu. International flights are canceled in Mogadishu until further notice. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.
  • South Africa: Level 4 restrictions in place through at least end-May. Nonessential movement restrictions in place. 2000-0500 night-time curfew in place. Regional and international flights remain suspended. Land border crossings remain closed.
  • Sudan: Authorities announced a 21-day lockdown of Khartoum from April 18. An extension is possible in the coming days. The government has also enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A nationwide curfew is in effect from 1800-0600. Intercity travel has been banned.
  • South Sudan: Partial nationwide lockdown measures in place. All domestic and international commercial flights remain suspended indefinitely. A nationwide 2000-0600 curfew is in place. Inter-state movement is banned until further notice.
  • Tanzania: All international flights canceled. Mandatory quarantine for travelers arriving from high-risk countries is in effect.
  • Togo: Officials have declared a three-month state of emergency. Measures include travel restrictions nationwide, a 2000-0600 curfew, the closure of all land borders, and movement restriction orders in place in large cities.
  • Uganda: Restrictive measures are in place nationwide through at least May 19. Nationwide 1900-0630 curfew is in place. Authorities have lifted certain restrictions including, reopening of shops and restaurants for takeaway services. Only private vehicles with authorized permits are allowed on the road. Air, land, and maritime ports of entry remain closed.
  • Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open while Ndola (NLA), Livingstone (LVA), and Mfuwe (MFU) airports are closed. Zambian borders remain open but under tight screening procedures. Mandatory 14-day quarantine at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.
  • Zimbabwe: Nationwide movement restrictions in place until at least May. 19. Stay-at-home measures, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures are in place. Formal sector employees can work 0800-1500. Air and land borders remain closed.


All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks.

Advice
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.

Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.


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