Severity: Warning Alert

Entry/Exit: African countries continue to enforce travel restrictions and conduct health screenings due to COVID-19 as of April 10.

The locations affected by this alert are:

  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Cape Verde
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Congo
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Djibouti
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Comoros
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Reunion
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome And Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Sudan
  • Eswatini (Swaziland)
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Seychelles
  • Victoria
  • Djibouti
  • St. Helena
  • South Sudan

This alert began 10 Apr 2020 15:45 GMT and is scheduled to expire 14 Apr 2020 23:59 GMT.

  • Incident: Travel and movement restrictions
  • Location(s): Africa (map)
  • Time Frame: Indefinite
  • Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions

Summary
African governments have intensified travel restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A majority of countries have implemented heightened screening measures at border points and port of entries and/or closed ports of entry. The transport of essential cargo and personnel remains largely unhindered. Repatriation flights for foreign nationals are also underway in numerous areas, as of April 10. Domestic movement restrictions, including bans on gatherings and stay-at-home orders, have also been enforced. As of April 10, the following high-level restrictions are in place.

Angola: The government has extended the State of Emergency through 2359 April 25. The country's land, sea, and air borders are closed. Interprovincial travel is banned.

Benin: Authorities have implemented lockdown and social distancing measures. Travel in major cities is allowed only for essential purposes-only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed. Mandatory quarantine for travelers arriving at Cotonou Cadjehoun International Airport (COO).

Botswana: The Parliament of Botswana endorsed a motion April 9 to extend the State of Public Emergency by six months. A nationwide lockdown (stay-at-home) is in effect through April 30; Flights have been suspended and borders are closed.

Burundi: Flights at Melchior Ndadaye International Airport (BJM) in Bujumbura are suspended until at least April 19. The Ruhwa border post remains closed.

Burkina Faso: Authorities have introduced quarantine measures in major cities. Land and air borders are closed until 18 April. Officials have also implemented a state of health emergency and a nationwide nightly curfew from 1900-0500. Domestic flights are still operating.

Cape Verde: The government has declared a state of emergency nationwide through at least April 17. Movement will be highly restricted. All nonessential services and businesses will remain closed for this period; The island of Boa Vista remains under quarantine.

Cameroon: Indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place at least through April. Cargo transport will not be affected. Internal travel has also been restricted. All individuals will be required to wear face masks in public spaces.

Chad: N'Djamena International Airport (NJD) is closed to all passengers travel through at least mid-April. A nightly curfew from 1900-0600 in the capital N'Djamena and for the provinces of Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-kebbi Ouest, Mayo-kebbi Est.

Central African Republic: Bangui-M'poko International Airport (BGF) has been closed since April 1. Persons entering CAR from locations with local-transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 21 days.

Comoros: All international flights have been suspended until further notice (since March 23). Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.

Cote d'Ivoire: The government has implemented a state of emergency. Measures include a nightly curfew from 2100-0500. Authorities have banned all travel to and from Abidjan March 29 through at least April 15, which includes the District of Abidjan, Dabou, Azaguie, Bingerville, Grand-Bassam, Bonoua, Assinie, and up to PK30 on the Abidjan-Yamoussoukro motorway. Land and air borders are closed.

Djibouti: Authorities have extended general confinement at home, at least through April 13. In addition, stores are ordered to close, except those with essential services. Authorities have banned international travel since March 18.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Land borders, airports, and maritime ports of entry have been closed since early April. Parts of the capital, Kinshasa, and areas in North Kivu, including Goma, Beni, and Butembo, are under lockdown through April 20. All domestic flights, as well as road and river transport between Kinshasa and the provinces, have been indefinitely suspended.

Equatorial Guinea: Land, sea, and air border closures are in place. Restriction of movement within the country except for essential purposes. Travel restrictions are implemented throughout the mainland region from April 3-15. Authorities are requiring residents to wear protective masks when in public.

Eritrea: Authorities have imposed a 21-day stay-at-home order starting April 2. The country extended the ban on all international commercial passenger flights until 23 April to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

eSwatini: Authorities have enacted a 20-day partial lockdown, which came into effect March 27. Only citizens and residents will be allowed to enter the country's land borders and will then be subject to a 14-day quarantine.

Ethiopia: Authorities have declared a five-month state of emergency. Public gatherings have been banned, and schools have been closed. All land borders have been closed since March 23. All regional states have suspended incoming and outgoing public transportation. Tigray State declared a 15-day state of emergency March 26.

Gabon: All land, air, and sea borders have been closed until further notice. Authorities have also imposed a curfew from 1900-0600. Travel from Greater Libreville to the interior of the country has been restricted.

Gambia: Authorities have suspended land and air borders. Schools, universities, public gatherings, and open markets are closed.

Ghana: Authorities have closed borders at least through April. All international flights in and out of the country have been suspended. Lockdown measures have also been introduced for the Accra and Kumasi regions.

Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel since late March.

Guinea-Bissau: Land, sea, and air borders are closed since March 17.

Kenya: Kenyan authorities have placed 21-day movement restrictions on Nairobi from April 6 and on Mombasa, Kilifi, and Kwale counties from April 8. All international flights are suspended. Authorities are prohibiting travelers arriving from any country with reported cases of COVID-19 from entering Kenya until April 15. An indefinite nationwide curfew from 1900-0500 is in place.

Lesotho: Authorities in Lesotho have implemented a nationwide lockdown through at least April 21. The measure imposes various restrictions, including a stay-at-home order, the banning of an international flight, and closure of nonessential businesses. Land borders are closed through April 21.

Liberia: Authorities in Liberia declared a renewable three-week state of emergency from April 10. Citizens are permitted to leave their houses for one hour to obtain essential services. Land borders remain closed. All commercial flights have been suspended.

Madagascar: Health State of Emergency through at least through April 20. All flights have been suspended. Cruise ships are barred from disembarking passengers. Public transport has been halted, and a curfew from 2000-0500 has been established.

Mali: Authorities have implemented a nightly 2100-0500 curfew as well as banning commercial international flights. Land borders have been closed to passenger travel.

Malawi: Authorities declared a State of Disaster March 20. All international flights have been suspended. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures.

Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew enforced from 1800-0600.

Mauritius: A nationwide shutdown and 2000-0800 curfew remain in effect until at least April 15. The shutdown includes the suspension of nonessential businesses and services, internal travel, cruise ships from disembarking, and all international commercial inbound and outbound flights until April 30.

Mozambique: The government declared a state of emergency effective April 1. Under the measure, there are limits on the movement of persons and goods. There are restrictions on travelers entering the country at any land, air, or maritime point of entry, with certain exceptions; mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad.

Namibia: A state of emergency was declared March 17. The Khomas and Erongo regions, including Okahandja, Rehoboth, and Windhoek, are under lockdown until at least April 17. Air, ports and land border crossings are closed.

Niger: Authorities issued a state of health emergency nationwide, and a 1900-0600 curfew is in place in the capital, Niamey. Other measures including air and land borders closure, except cargo, aid, and military essentials. Travel to and from Niamey is currently restricted.

Nigeria: The Nigerian government closed all land borders to passenger traffic for four weeks effective March 23. All international airport are closed except for repatriation flights. Authorities have also announced a lockdown for Lagos, Abuja, and Ogun State March 30-April 13. State governors have taken similar restrictions.

Republic ofCongo: Congolese authorities declared a public health state of emergency effective March 31, imposing severe containment restrictions. An indefinite 2000-0500 nightly curfew is in place.

Reunion: Nonessential regional and international travel banned from March 20. Travelers from France and Mayotte must undergo a 14-day mandatory self-quarantine. Regional flights remain suspended.

Rwanda: Authorities in Rwanda placed the nation on lockdown March 22-April 19. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) remain suspended March 20. There is a closure of all borders except to citizens and legal residents.

Sao Tome and Principe: Officials have prohibited all foreign travelers from entering the country through at least April 17. Charter flights and cruise ships are also prohibited.

Senegal: Authorities have suspended international and regional flights from March 20. Cruise ships will not be allowed to enter Senegalese waters. State of emergency and lockdown measures, including a curfew from 2000-0600, are also in place.

Seychelles: Authorities have implemented a nationwide restriction period at least through April 29. All international flights have stopped until the end of April.

Sierra Leone: The government has suspended all flights to and from Freetown International Airport (FNA) until further notice from March 21. Land borders remain shut with a 12-month state of emergency enacted.

Somalia: Authorities reportedly enforced a short-notice lockdown in Mogadishu April 10. All international flights are reportedly canceled.

South Africa: South African authorities issued a 21-day lockdown through at least April 30. Regional and international flights remain suspended until April 30. Starting March 18, visas were denied to foreign travelers who have visited high-risk countries. Land border crossings are closed.

Sudan: Authorities enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A curfew is also in effect from 1800-0600 and the closure of all borders.

South Sudan: All international commercial flights remain suspended indefinitely. Authorities have issued a nationwide 2000-0600 curfew.

Tanzania: Authorities have implemented enhanced screening measures at airports for all passengers arriving at Tanzania's three international airports - Dar es Salaam (DAR), Kilimanjaro (JRO), and Zanzibar (ZNZ).

Togo: Officials have declared a three-month state of emergency. Measures include travel restrictions across Togo, a curfew from 1900-0600, the closure of all land borders, social distancing, and lockdown orders in large cities.

Uganda: All movement of personal vehicles has been suspended from March 31. All malls, arcades, and non-food shops will remain closed for 14 days from April 1. Air, land, and maritime entries are closed.

Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open while Ndola (NLA), Livingstone (LVA), and Mfuwe (MFU) airports are closed. Zambian borders remain open but under tight screening procedures.

Zimbabwe: Authorities announced a 21-day nationwide lockdown March 30 imposing stay-at-home measure, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures. Air and land borders remain closed.

All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks.

Advice
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.

Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.

Resources
World Health Organisation (WHO): www.who.int