Severity: Warning Alert
Entry/Exit: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of April 30.
The locations affected by this alert are:
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Central African Republic
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Cote d'Ivoire
- Equatorial Guinea
- Sao Tome And Principe
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- Eswatini (Swaziland)
- St. Helena
- South Sudan
This alert began 30 Apr 2020 15:50 GMT and is scheduled to expire 08 May 2020 23:59 GMT.
- Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
- Location(s): Africa (map)
- Time Frame: Indefinite
- Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions
African governments are maintaining travel restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The majority of countries have implemented heightened screening measures at border points and port of entries and/or closed ports of entry. The transport of essential cargo and personnel remains largely unhindered. Repatriation flights for foreign nationals are also underway in numerous areas as of April 30. Domestic movement restrictions, including bans on gatherings and stay-at-home orders, have also been enforced. Some states have also eased measures following improvements. As of April 30, the following high-level restrictions are in place.
Angola: The government has extended the state of emergency through 2359 May 10. The country's land, sea, and air borders are closed. Interprovincial travel is allowed for commercial reasons, except for Luanda, where all entry and exit into the capital is restricted.
Benin: Authorities have implemented movement restrictions and social distancing measures. The measures include quarantine and movement restrictions in the municipalities of Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Abomey-Calavi, Allada, Ouidah, Seme Podji, Akpro Missere, Atchoukpa, and Adjara. Travel in major cities is allowed only for essential purposes and with a waiver. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed. Residents must wear protective facemasks and maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) of social distance.
Botswana: Legislators endorsed a motion April 9 to extend the state of public emergency by six months. A nationwide stay-at-home order is in effect through May 7; flights have been suspended and borders are closed.
Burundi: Authorities in Burundi have extended the suspension of international passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) indefinitely. Cargo and humanitarian flights will be allowed to continue. Authorities are imposing restrictions at land borders.
Burkina Faso: Authorities have introduced quarantine measures in major cities. Land and air borders are closed. Officials have also implemented a state of health emergency and a nationwide nightly curfew from 2100-0400. The use of facemasks is obligatory.
Cape Verde: The government has declared a state of emergency with quarantine measures in place on Sao Vicente, Boa Vista, and Santiago through at least early May; similar measures have been eased on other islands. Movement will be highly restricted in affected areas. All nonessential services and businesses will remain closed for this period.
Cameroon: An indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place at least through early May. Cargo transport will not be affected. Internal travel has also been restricted. All individuals are required to wear face masks in public spaces.
Chad: N'Djamena International Airport (NJD) is closed to all passenger travel through at least May 15. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and for the provinces of Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-kebbi Ouest, and Mayo-kebbi Est.
Central African Republic: Bangui-M'Poko International Airport (BGF) has been closed since April 1. Persons entering CAR from locations with local-transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 14 days. Stay-at-home measures are being enforced.
Comoros: All international flights have been suspended until further notice (since March 23). Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.
Cote d'Ivoire: The government has implemented a state of emergency. Measures include a nightly 2100-0500 curfew. Authorities have banned all travel to and from Abidjan March 29 through at least May 8. Affected areas include the District of Abidjan, Dabou, Azaguie, Bingerville, Grand-Bassam, Bonoua, Assinie, and up to PK30 on the Abidjan-Yamoussoukro motorway. Land and air borders are closed.
Djibouti: Authorities have extended general confinement at home through at least May 8. Stores are ordered to close, except those with essential services. Authorities have banned international travel since March 18.
Democratic Republic of Congo: Land borders, airports, and maritime ports of entry have been closed since early April through to at least May 8. Indefinite movement restrictions are in effect in parts of the capital, Kinshasa, in parts of North Kivu, including Goma, Beni, and Butembo, and in South Kivu, including in Bukavu. Night-time 2200-0500 curfew in Lualaba province.
Equatorial Guinea: Land, sea, and air border closures are in place. Restriction of movement within the country is in effect, except for essential purposes. Travel restrictions through May 15 have been implemented throughout the mainland. Authorities are requiring residents to wear protective masks when in public.
Eritrea: Authorities have indefinitely extended a stay-at-home order, and all international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Other COVID-19 measures have been extended indefinitely.
eSwatini (Swaziland): Authorities enacted nationwide movement restrictions until May 8. Only citizens and residents will be allowed to enter the country's land borders and will then be subject to a 14-day quarantine. Commercial passenger flights have also been suspended. A stay-at-home order is in place.
Ethiopia: Authorities declared a five-month state of emergency April 8. Measures included in this declaration include a ban on public gatherings and the closure of schools. All international land borders have been closed since March 2 with regional states suspending incoming and outgoing public transportation. Authorities have also imposed movement restrictions on private vehicles with permitted driving days determined by the vehicle's registration.
Gabon: Significant movement restrictions are in effect in Greater Libreville through May 11. All land, air, and sea borders have been closed until further notice. Authorities have also imposed a nationwide nightly 1800-0600 curfew. The mandatory wearing of facemasks in public was implemented April 15.
Gambia: Authorities have suspended land and air borders. Schools, universities, public gatherings, and open markets are closed.
Ghana: Authorities have closed borders at least through May 10. All international flights in and out of the country have been suspended. Domestic flights will resume May 1. Movement restrictions have also been relaxed for the Accra and Kumasi regions.
Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel is in effect through mid-May.
Guinea-Bissau: A state of emergency is in place at least through May 11. Land, sea, and air borders have been closed since March 17. Only essential services, such as food and medical supply, are operating.
Kenya: Authorities have extended a 21-day extension of curfew in Nairobi, Kilifi, Kwale, and Mombasa from April 27. All international flights are suspended until at least May 6, although some repatriation flights are ongoing. Authorities are prohibiting travelers arriving from any country with reported cases of COVID-19 from entering Kenya. An indefinite nationwide 1900-0500 curfew is in place. Mandera County announced movement restrictions until May 8.
Lesotho: Authorities in Lesotho have extended their lockdown through May 5. The measures include a stay-at-home order, the banning of an international flight, and the closure of nonessential businesses. Land borders are closed through at least May 5.
Liberia: Authorities in Liberia have expanded and extended nationwide restrictions through at least mid-May. All counties will be quarantined with citizens permitted to leave their houses to obtain essential services. Land borders remain closed. All commercial flights have been suspended.
Madagascar: Authorities in Madagascar continue the easing of restrictive measures in several areas of the country as of April 30; authorities began to ease restrictions April 20. Affected areas include the Analamanga (including Antananarivo) and Matsiatra Ambony regions, and the city of Toamasina. Movement restrictions are lifted 0600-1300 daily until further notice. Markets, bars, and restaurants have been allowed to operate, and limited government and official services have resumed. Some public transport services have resumed in Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, and Toamasina during this time; however, intercity travel is still prohibited. Some schools have reopened. Outside the aforementioned areas, in the rest of the country, a 2100-0400 curfew remains in place.
Mali: Authorities have implemented a nightly 2100-0500 curfew and banned commercial international flights. Land borders have been closed to passenger travel.
Malawi: All international flights have been suspended. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures.
Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew is enforced from 2100-0600. Movement restrictions are in effect through at least May 4.
Mauritius: A nationwide shutdown and 2000-0800 curfew remains in effect until at least May 5. The shutdown includes the suspension of nonessential businesses and services, internal travel, cruise ships from disembarking, and all international commercial inbound and outbound flights indefinitely.
Mayotte: Officials have imposed a 2000-0500 curfew. Mayotte-Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is closed to commercial air traffic. Travel certificates are to be completed before entry to French Overseas Territories, including Mayotte; this document is available on the French Ministry of Interior web page.
Mozambique: The government declared a state of emergency until May 30. The measure limits the movement of persons and goods. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, or maritime ports of entry, with certain exceptions, including freight transport. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad. Visa issuance has been suspended. Ethiopian Airlines is the only commercial airline continuing to offer flights departing Mozambique.
Namibia: A state of emergency remains in place. Travel and movement restrictions, previously enforced in Khomas and Erongo regions, have been extended nationwide until May 5. International commercial flights suspended. Land border crossings are closed.
Niger: Authorities issued a state of health emergency nationwide, and a 1900-0600 curfew is in place in the capital, Niamey. Other measures include air and land border closures, except cargo, aid, and military essentials. Travel to and from Niamey is currently restricted.
Nigeria: The Nigerian government has closed all land borders to passenger traffic since March 23. All international airports remain closed except for repatriation flights. Authorities have also announced travel and movement restrictions for Lagos, Abuja, and Ogun State March 30-May 4. A nationwide lockdown will come into effect May 4. State governors have taken similar restrictions.
Republic of Congo: Authorities in Republic of Congo extended the state of emergency through May 11 to curb the spread of COVID-19. An indefinite 2000-0500 nightly curfew is in place.
Reunion: Nonessential regional and international travel has been banned since March 20. Travelers from France and Mayotte must undergo a 14-day mandatory self-quarantine. Regional flights remain suspended.
Rwanda: Authorities in Rwanda have implemented nationwide travel and movement restrictions until at least early May. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) are indefinitely suspended. Citizens and legal residents returning to Rwanda will be subjected to isolation and quarantine measures.
Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to compulsory 14-day quarantine.
Sao Tome and Principe: Officials have prohibited all foreign travelers from entering the country through at least May 2. Charter flights and cruise ships are also prohibited.
Senegal: Authorities have suspended international and regional flights from March 20. Cruise ships will not be allowed to enter Senegalese waters. Travel and movement restrictions, including a curfew from 2000-0600, are also in place.
Seychelles: Authorities have implemented indefinite nationwide restrictions. Seychelles International Airport (SEZ) closed to passenger travel. A nightly curfew is being enforced between 1900-0600 at least through April. Additional health and travel security measures may be implemented with little notice.
Sierra Leone: The government has suspended all flights to and from Freetown International Airport (FNA) until further notice. Land borders remain shut. A nationwide 2100-0600 curfew is in place and nonessential interdistrict travel has been prohibited.
Somalia: Authorities in Somalia introduced an indefinite 2000-0500 curfew in Mogadishu April 15. International flights are canceled in Mogadishu through early May. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.
South Africa: Authorities have imposed nationwide Level-4 restrictions through at least end-May. Non-essential movement restrictions in place. 2000-0500 night-time curfew in place. Regional and international flights remain suspended. Land border crossings remain closed.
Sudan: Authorities announced a 21-day lockdown of Khartoum from April 18. The government has also enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A nationwide curfew is in effect from 1800-0600. Intercity travel has been banned since April 12.
South Sudan: Authorities have extended partial nationwide lockdown measures in place since April 22. All domestic and international commercial flights remain suspended indefinitely. A nationwide 2000-0600 curfew is in place. Inter-state movement is banned until further notice.
Tanzania: All international flights have been canceled since April 11. Mandatory quarantine for travelers arriving from high-risk countries is in effect.
Togo: Officials have declared a three-month state of emergency. Measures include travel restrictions across Togo, a curfew from 2000-0600, the closure of all land borders, and movement restriction orders in place in large cities.
Uganda: Authorities have extended the country's existing nationwide restrictive measures through at least May 5. A nationwide 1900-0630 curfew is in place. All movement of personal vehicles has been suspended since March 31. All malls, arcades, and non-food shops are subject to closures and restrictions. Air, land, and maritime ports of entry are closed.
Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open while Ndola (NLA), Livingstone (LVA), and Mfuwe (MFU) airports are closed. Zambian borders remain open but under tight screening procedures. Mandatory 14-day quarantine at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.
Zimbabwe: Authorities have imposed nationwide movement restrictions until at least May 3. Stay-at-home measures, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures are in place. Air and land borders remain closed. All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice.
All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks.
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.
Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.