Severity: Warning Alert

Entry/Exit: Various travel restrictions and other preventative measures remain in force across Africa due to COVID-19 as of May 15.

The locations affected by this alert are:

  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Cape Verde
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Congo
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Djibouti
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Comoros
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Reunion
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome And Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Sudan
  • Eswatini (Swaziland)
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Seychelles
  • St. Helena
  • South Sudan

This alert began 15 May 2020 11:03 GMT and is scheduled to expire 22 May 2020 23:59 GMT.

  • Incident: COVID-19 restrictions
  • Location(s): Africa (map)
  • Time Frame: Indefinite
  • Impact: Significant travel, transport, and business disruptions

Summary
Governments in Africa are maintaining travel and other restrictions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Specific measures vary by country, though as of May 15 significant restrictions include:

  • Angola: A state of emergency is in place through 2359 May 25. Land, sea, and air borders are closed. Interprovincial travel is allowed for commercial reasons, except for Luanda, where all entry and exit into the capital is restricted.
  • Benin: Travel restrictions and social distancing measures have been extended indefinitely. However, domestic restrictions have been eased, and some academic activities resumed on May 10. Quarantine restrictions have been eased in the municipalities of Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Abomey-Calavi, Allada, Ouidah, Seme Podji, Akpro Missere, Atchoukpa, and Adjara. Inter-regional travel in major cities is allowed only for essential purposes and with a waiver. Only essential travel is allowed at border crossings with neighboring countries. The land border with Togo is closed. Residents must wear protective facemasks.
  • Botswana: Entry and exit restrictions in the capital, Gaborone, have been lifted as of May 13. Essential travel in and out of Gaborone is permitted as long as social distancing measures and the mandatory wearing of protective facemasks are adhered to. Other national restrictions put in place to curb the spread of COVID-19 remain in place through at least May 20.
  • Burundi: International passenger flights at Melchior Ndadaye Airport (BJM) are suspended indefinitely. Cargo and humanitarian flights will be allowed to continue. Authorities have also imposed restrictions at land border crossings.
  • Burkina Faso: Restrictive and social distancing measures remain in place in major cities. Land and air borders are closed. Officials have also implemented a state of health emergency and a nationwide nightly curfew from 2100-0400. The use of facemasks is obligatory.
  • Cape Verde: A state of emergency with quarantine measures is in place in Santiago through at least May 29; similar measures have been eased on other islands. Movement is highly restricted in affected areas. All nonessential services and businesses will remain closed for this period.
  • Cameroon: An indefinite closure of land, sea, and air borders remains in place at least through May. Cargo transport will not be affected. Internal travel has also been restricted. All individuals are required to wear face masks in public spaces.
  • Chad: N'Djamena International Airport (NJD) is closed indefinitely to all passenger travel. A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place in the capital, N'Djamena, and in all provincial capitals nationwide starting May 8. Authorities have also implemented a ban on vehicles leaving or entering N'Djamena and all provincial capitals nationwide until at least May 22.
  • Central African Republic: Bangui-M'Poko International Airport (BGF) remains closed since April 1. Persons entering CAR from locations with local-transmission of COVID-19 are required to self-isolate for 14 days. Stay-at-home measures are being enforced.
  • Comoros: All international flights suspended from March 23 until further notice. Ports remain closed to traffic from affected countries.
  • Cote d'Ivoire: Restrictions have been eased since May 8. Some commercial operations, including restaurants and canteens, have resumed operations. Land, air, and maritime borders are closed.
  • Djibouti: Travel and business confinement measures have been extended through at least May 17, after initial plans to implement incremental easing were postponed due to the increasing number of cases in the country. Restrictions implemented under the initial lockdown period, from March 23, will remain in place.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo: State of health emergency extended until at least May 22. Land borders, airports, and maritime ports of entry have been closed since early April. Indefinite movement restrictions are in effect in parts of Kinshasa, in parts of North Kivu, including Goma, Beni, and Butembo, and in South Kivu, including in Bukavu. Night-time 2200-0500 curfew in Lualaba province.
  • Equatorial Guinea: Land, sea, and air border closures are in place. Restriction of movement within the country is in effect, except for essential purposes. Travel restrictions through May 31 have been implemented throughout the mainland. Authorities are requiring residents to wear protective masks when in public.
  • Eritrea: Authorities have indefinitely extended a stay-at-home order, and all international commercial passenger flights remain suspended until further notice. Other COVID-19 measures have been extended indefinitely.
  • eSwatini (Swaziland): A phased lifting of restrictive measures began May 8. Nationwide movement restrictions remain in effect. Commercial passenger flights have also been suspended. Only citizens and residents will be allowed to enter the country's land borders and will then be subject to a 14-day quarantine.
  • Ethiopia: A five-month state of emergency, enacted April 8, is currently in place. Measures include a ban on public gatherings and the closure of schools. All international land borders have been closed since March 2, with regional states suspending incoming and outgoing public transportation. Authorities have also imposed movement restrictions on private vehicles with permitted driving days determined by the vehicle's registration.
  • Gabon: The nationwide state of emergency was lifted May 11; however, authorities have confirmed that several existing restrictions will remain in place. Travel restrictions within the Grande Libreville area have been lifted; however, travel outside Libreville and inland Gabon remains restricted. A nightly curfew 1800-0600 is in force. Land, air, and sea borders remain closed except for the cases of repatriation, the transport of food, oil, gas, and freight.
  • Gambia: Land, maritime, and air borders remain closed. Schools, universities, public gatherings, and open markets are closed at least through mid-May.
  • Ghana: Restrictions will remain in place at least through May 31. Domestic flights resumed May 1. International flights are suspended. Precautionary travel measures, such as health screenings before boarding flights, and safe social distancing between passengers, will be in place.
  • Guinea: Border closures and the suspension of all international travel is in effect through mid-May.
  • Guinea-Bissau: A state of emergency is in place at least through May 26. Land, sea, and air borders have been closed since March 17. Only essential services, such as food and medical supply, are operating.
  • Kenya: A curfew is in place in Nairobi, Kilifi, Kwale, and Mombasa. All international flights are suspended until further notice, although some repatriation flights are ongoing. Authorities are prohibiting travelers arriving from any country with reported cases of COVID-19 from entering Kenya. An indefinite nationwide 1900-0500 curfew is in place. Mandera County announced movement restrictions through mid-May.
  • Lesotho: Restrictive measures eased as of May 5; all businesses, public services, and state companies can resume daily business operations. Schools and universities have been opened since that date. Restrictions on gatherings of more than 50 people remain in place.
  • Liberia: Nationwide restrictions expanded and extended through at least May 23. All counties will be quarantined with citizens permitted to leave their houses to obtain essential services. Corridors between counties will be opened to allow for the distribution of food aid while observing social distancing measures and the wearing of facemasks. Churches and mosques will be permitted to host prayer programs, operating at 25 percent capacity. The movement of essential staff and products is permitted. The measures will support the national health emergency through until at least June 9.
  • Madagascar: A state of sanitary emergency is in place through at least May 17. Restrictions include the suspension of air traffic until further notice and the mandatory wearing of facemasks in public. Movement restrictions are lifted 0600-1300 daily until further notice.
  • Mali: Nightly 2100-0500 curfew in place and commercial international flights banned. Land borders closed to passenger travel.
  • Malawi: All international flights have been suspended. Enhanced screening measures are in place for all travelers. Land borders are reportedly open; however, delays at crossings are likely due to enhanced screening measures.
  • Mauritania: A suspension of international flights remains in place. A nightly curfew is enforced from 2300-0600. Movement restrictions are in effect through at least May 23.
  • Mauritius: A nationwide 2000-0800 nightly curfew extended through June 1. Authorities have also announced easing restrictions on bakeries, hardware stores, and fish markets as of May 15. The restrictions put in place have suspended activities of nonessential businesses and services, internal travel, cruise ships from disembarking, and all international commercial inbound and outbound flights indefinitely.
  • Mayotte: A nightly 2000-0500 curfew is in place. Mayotte-Dzaoudzi-Pamandzi International Airport (DZA) is closed to commercial air traffic. Travel certificates are to be completed before entry to French Overseas Territories, including Mayotte; this document is available on the French Ministry of Interior website.
  • Mozambique: A state of emergency is in place until May 30. International passenger flights suspended until May 31. The measure limits the movement of persons and goods. There are restrictions on passenger transit at land, air, or maritime ports of entry, with certain exceptions, including freight transport. There is a mandatory quarantine for all persons who have traveled abroad. Visa issuance has been suspended.
  • Namibia: The easing of travel and movement restrictions began May 5. Domestic air travel and intercity travel is allowed without restriction but in adherence to social distancing protocols. International commercial flights are suspended. Land border crossings are closed.
  • Niger: A nightly curfew in Niamey was lifted May 13. Other measures remain in place, including air and land border closures, except cargo, aid, and military essentials. Travel to and from Niamey is currently restricted. All international passenger flights are suspended through May 23.
  • Nigeria: All land borders remain closed to passenger traffic. All international airports remain closed except for repatriation flights. Authorities have relaxed travel and movement restrictions for Lagos, Abuja, and Ogun State since May 4. A nationwide lockdown came into effect May 4. State governors have taken similar restrictions.
  • Republic of Congo: State of emergency extended through May 29 to curb the spread of COVID-19. An indefinite 2000-0500 nightly curfew is in place.
  • Reunion: The relaxing of restrictions began in Reunion May 11. Smaller businesses have resumed operations. Nonessential regional and international travel has been banned since March 20. Travelers from France and Mayotte must undergo a 14-day mandatory self-quarantine. Regional flights remain suspended.
  • Rwanda: Some restrictions have been lifted since May 4. Some of the eased measures include movement of people within their local provinces, reopening of hotels and restaurants, allowing public and private modes of transportation. All residents are required to wear a face mask in a public place. All flights to and from Kigali International Airport (KGL) are indefinitely suspended.
  • Saint Helena: Only residents, holders of long term entry permits, and sponsored Technical Cooperation Officers, contractors, and travelers to Ascension will be permitted to enter. All arrivals are subject to a compulsory 14-day quarantine.
  • Sao Tome and Principe: Sao Tomean authorities have extended an ongoing state of emergency, as part of efforts to stem the spread of COVID-19, from May 6 to at least May 17.
  • Senegal: Authorities have suspended international and regional flights from March 20. Cruise ships will not be allowed to enter Senegalese waters. Travel and movement restrictions, including a curfew from 2100-0500, are also in place.
  • Seychelles: Phased relaxation of restrictions started May 4. Much of the business and retail sector, the postal service, tourism, schools, and indoor religious services will begin to reopen. Shops, retail, and wholesale outlets will be required to close 2000-0600. Domestic land, sea, and air transport will also resume. Additional relaxation in restrictions is scheduled from June 1.
  • Sierra Leone: Nationwide 2100-0600 nightly curfew in effect.
  • Somalia: Indefinite 2000-0500 curfew in place in Mogadishu. International flights are canceled in Mogadishu until further notice. Authorities in Somaliland are implementing separate measures. Land and sea borders are closed.
  • South Africa: Level 4 restrictions in place through at least end-May. Nonessential movement restrictions in place. 2000-0500 night-time curfew in place. Regional and international flights remain suspended. Land border crossings remain closed.
  • South Sudan: All domestic and international commercial flights have resumed as of May 13. A nationwide 2000-0600 curfew is in place. Inter-state movement is banned until further notice.
  • Sudan: Lockdown measures in Khartoum State have been extended through May 19. The government has also enacted a state of emergency; all land, air, and sea borders remain closed. A nationwide curfew is in effect from 1800-0600. Interstate and intercity travel has been banned.
  • Tanzania: All international commercial flights have been suspended indefinitely from April 11. Cargo flights continue to operate in all of Tanzania's airports.
  • Togo: Officials have declared a three-month state of emergency. Measures include travel restrictions nationwide, a 2000-0600 curfew, the closure of all land borders, and movement restriction orders in place in large cities.
  • Uganda: Restrictive measures are in place nationwide through at least May 19. Nationwide 1900-0630 curfew is in place. Authorities have lifted certain restrictions including, reopening of shops and restaurants for takeaway services. Only private vehicles with authorized permits are allowed on the road. Air, land, and maritime ports of entry remain closed.
  • Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (LUN) in Lusaka will remain open while Ndola (NLA), Livingstone (LVA), and Mfuwe (MFU) airports are closed. Border with Tanzania at Nakonde has been closed from May 11 until further notice. Mandatory 14-day quarantine at a government health facility for all persons entering Zambia.
  • Zimbabwe: Nationwide movement restrictions in place until at least May. 19. Stay-at-home measures, limitations on internal movement, and nonessential business closures are in place. Formal sector employees can work 0800-1500. Air and land borders remain closed.All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks.


All restrictions are subject to amendment at short notice in the coming weeks. The movement of cargo across international borders and within impacted countries is continuing largely unhindered.

Advice
Follow all official instructions. Abide by national health and safety measures. Reconfirm all travel arrangements. Consider delaying traveling if experiencing symptoms associated with COVID-19, as they may prompt increased scrutiny and delays. Liaise with trusted contacts for further updates and guidance. Maintain contact with your diplomatic representation. Ensure contingency plans account for further disruptive measures or extensions of current restrictions. Reconsider and reconfirm nonemergency health appointments. Plan for queues and delays at available shopping centers.

Emphasize basic health precautions, especially frequent handwashing with soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are unavailable. Practice good coughing/sneezing etiquette (i.e., covering coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue, maintaining distance from others, and washing hands). There is no evidence that the influenza vaccine, antibiotics, or antiviral medications will prevent this disease, highlighting the importance of diligent basic health precautions.


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